Abbreviations and figures

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List of abbreviations

BECCS biomass, energy with carbon capture and storage

CEMAC Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa

CEOs chief executive officers

CHD coronary heart disease

CSR Corporate Social Responsibility

DALYs disability-adjusted life years

FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

FAOSTAT Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database

FBDGs food-based dietary guidelines

GAIN Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition

GDD Global Dietary Database

GDP gross domestic product

GHG greenhouse gas

GMO genetically modified organisms

GNP gross national product

HICs high-income countries

IFPRI International Food Policy Research Institute

IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

LMICs low- and middle-income countries

NCDs non-communicable diseases

N4G Nutrition for Growth

OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

PAF Population Attributable Fraction

ppm parts per million

PPP purchasing power parity

R&D research and development

RCP Representative Concentration Pathway

SDGs sustainable development goals

SI sustainable intensification

SMEs small- and medium-sized enterprises

SSBs sugar-sweetened beverages

VAT value-added taxes

WFP United Nations World Food Programme

WHA World Health Assembly

WHO World Health Organization

WRA women of reproductive age

WTO World Trade Organization

List of figures

  • Figure 2.1: The global burden of malnutrition in all its forms
  • Figure 2.2: Prevalence of children under five (%) who are not growing well (stunted, wasted or overweight), 2018
  • Figure 2.3: Age-standardised mortality rate per 100,000 population attributable to diet in 2017
  • Figure 2.4: What the world eats
  • Figure 2.5: Trends in food demand by income group
  • Figure 2.6: Contribution of selected food groups to calories supplied per capita, 5 countries across the developing world
  • Figure 2.7: Consumption of food groups and components across income groups, compared with WHO recommended levels consistent with a healthy diet
  • Figure 2.8: Proportion of mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) attributable to suboptimal fruit intake (<300g/day)
  •  Figure 2.9: Proportion of mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) and type 2 diabetes attributable to suboptimal processed meat consumption (>0g/day)
  • Figure 3.1: Impacts of different food groups on the environment
  • Figure 3.2: Some of the ways whereby diets impact planetary health
  • Figure 3.3: Potential changes in agricultural GHG, blue water and green water footprints associated with dietary shifts in 151 countries
  • Figure 3.4: Feedback loops between dietary patterns and environmental impacts throughout the food system
  • Figure 3.5: The food system accounts for 28% of global greenhouse gas emissions
  • Figure 3.6: Past trends and projections in world agriculture
  • Figure 3.7: Estimates of yield gaps (as achieved as percentage of the possible yield) for different crops. A) maize, B) rain-fed wheat, C) rain-fed rice
  • Figure 3.8: Projections of diversity loss compared to a baseline world without human land-use change with a range of potential future projections based on IPCC RCP scenarios
  • Figure 3.9: Eutrophying emissions per kilogram of food product
  • Figure 3.10: Projected yield impacts of a 3°C warmer world by 2050
  • Figure 3.11: Projected aflatoxin contamination in maize and wheat crops across Europe baseline (2016 – a), 2C degrees (b), and 5C (c) degrees warming scenarios
  • Figure 4.1: Changes in relative abundance of crops (1960–2009 in terms of calories)
  • Figure 4.2: The mismatch between what food is produced globally, and what is required for healthy and balanced diets
  • Figure 4.3: Global food supply quantity in energy, fat, protein and food weight by food group
  • Figure 4.4: Trends in per capita energy availability (kcal) and micronutrient density index for different regions of the world
  • Figure 4.5: Vegetable supply by major region in 2013
  • Figure 4.6: Smallholder share in value of primary food production
  • Figure 4.7: An increase in agricultural productivity has nearly twice the impact on reducing extreme poverty as a comparable productivity increase in industry or services
  • Figure 4.8: Possible actions to meet future food demand
  • Figure 4.9: Gains in agricultural total factor productivity varied greatly across countries from 1971 to 2015
  • Figure 4.10: Half the countries in Africa have zero or negative growth in spending on agriculture R&D, 2000–11
  • Figure 4.11: Annual average forms of public agricultural support in 51 countries 2015–17 (%)
  • Figure 4.12: Producer support estimate by country: 1995–97 and 2015-17 (percentage of gross farm receipts)
  • Figure 4.13: Changes in production across regions and agricultural reform scenarios
  • Figure 4.14: Consumption of vegetables after 100% removal of subsidies
  • Figure 4.15: Increase in vegetable consumption in production subsidised at rate relative to population
  • Figure 4.16: Change in resource demand in response to scenarios
  • Figure 4.17: Employment by sector
  • Figure 4.18: The path of the “Great Green Wall”, including extensions
  • Figure 5.1: Relative growth in food import and export values at base period prices between 1993 and 2016
  • Figure 5.2: Share of global exports from agriculture
  • Figure 5.3: Policies that can influence agricultural markets
  • Figure 5.4: Average weekly household greenhouse gas emissions per Standard Adult Equivalent by supply chain stage (n=4,723 households)
  • Figure 5.5: Projected value of food markets in sub-Saharan Africa
  • Figure 5.6: Activities pursued by small- and medium- enterprises at different parts of the food chain
  • Figure 5.7: The share of agrifood value chain segments in GDP in Africa and Asia
  • Figure 5.8: Flow between production, processing, and retail segments for fruit and vegetables in Africa
  • Figure 5.9: Farm and food system employment in the US, 1990–2020
  • Figure 5.10: Loss and waste of fruits and vegetables at different points of the food system
  • Figure 5.11: Investible innovations for today
  • Figure 5.12: The ‘Transformative Twelve’ could deliver significant impacts to food systems by 2030
  • Figure 5.13: Global Panel Food Loss and Waste policy brief
  • Figure 6.1: Proportion of household consumption spent on food and beverages (among households consuming less than $2.97 per person per day)
  • Figure 6.2: The number of people in extreme poverty – including projections to 2030 (produced before the COVID-19 pandemic)
  • Figure 6.3: In 61 countries income growth among the poorest was faster than average
  • Figure 6.4: The cost of a healthy diet as a ratio of average food expenditure per capita
  • Figure 6.5: Projected food commodity prices in 2030 by income region
  • Figure 6.6: Cost of nutrient adequacy as a percent of household food expenditure
  • Figure 6.7: Global variation of relative caloric prices of eggs and salty snacks in 176 countries, 2011
  • Figure 6.8: The affordability of a nutrient adequate diet varies widely within many countries
  • Figure 6.9: Price trends by food group in Ethiopia, 2007–2016
  • Figure 6.10: Income elasticity of demand estimates for different food groups across regions
  • Figure 6.11: Income elasticities for select food categories by income decile
  • Figure 6.12: Daily cost of diets in 2050 per person by diet scenarios, commodity, and income region
  • Figure 6.13: The projected change in cost of a flexitarian diet between 2017 and 2050
  • Figure 6.14: Per capita GDP growth versus household disposable income growth, 2000–16
  • Figure 6.15: The global income distribution in 2003, 2013, and the projection for 2035
  • Figure 6.16: Prevalence of stunting in children under five by wealth for select countries, 2000–2018
  • Figure 6.17: Share of social security programmes benefiting each population quintile, most recent survey in 2008–16 (%)
  • Figure 6.18: The re-greening of China’s Loess Plateau
  • Figure 7.1: Growth in retail value of ultra-processed foods from 2013–2018
  • Figure 7.2: Share of consumers who prefer healthy, fresh and nourishing food in Brazil in 2018, by region
  • Figure 7.3: Global consumption of ultra-processed food and drink products (change 2002–2016)
  • Figure 7.4: Number of food based dietary guideline recommendations that are met in each country
  • Figure 7.5: China’s guidance on annual food intake
  • Figure 7.6: Per capita away-from-home food and non- alcoholic beverage yearly expenditures, 1995–2017
  • Figure 7.7: Share of adults buying fast food for their children in the past week in the United States from 2010 to 2016
  • Figure 7.8: Net revenue of the leading sectors in the food industry in Brazil from 2016 to 2018
  • Figure 7.9: Food and beverage marketing approaches
  • Figure 8.1: Climate change adaption commitments
  • Figure 8.2: Four plausible, alternative futures for food systems, based on axes concerning the extent to which growth is inclusive, and the health of the natural environment.
  • Figure 9.1: General government gross financial liabilities, OECD countries
  • Figure 9.2: Priority policy actions to transition food systems towards sustainable, healthy diets
  • Figure 9.3: Illustration of how priority actions may differ across contexts and domains, but still lead to desired cumulative outcomes